Economics of concrete and wood tie track structures
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Dept. of Transportation, Federal Railroad Administration, Office of Research and Development, for sale by the National Technical Information Service , Washington, Springfield, Va
Railroads -- Ties, Concrete -- Economic asp
|Statement||D. W. White, R. C. Arnlund, Bechtel, Inc., and R. H. Prause, Battelle-Columbus Laboratories.|
|Series||Report - Federal Railroad Administration ; no. FRA/ORD-78/2, Report (National Institute of Standards and Technology (U.S.)) -- no. FRA/ORO-78/2.|
|Contributions||Arnlund, R. C., Prause, R. H., United States. Federal Railroad Administration. Office of Research and Development., Bechtel Inc., Battelle Memorial Institute. Columbus Laboratories.|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||viii, 76 p. :|
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Railroad tie - Wikipedia. Economics of concrete and wood tie track structures. Washington: Dept. of Transportation, Federal Railroad Administration, Office of Research and Development ; Springfield, Va.: For sale by the.
One such overall analysis approach (used by the SelecTie model) examines the economics of replacing an existing wood tie track system (with either cut spikes or elastic fasteners) with concrete ties and elastic fasteners.
COMPONENTS OF CONCRETE TIE TRACK The system The concrete tie track system consists of subgrade, ballast, concrete ties, fastener system, and rail. The composite of these discrete i terns comprise to day's concrete tie track. However, the interactions of vehicle and track.
87% will be wood ties, 12% will lik ely be concrete ties, and 1 % other material including plastic and steel (Ref. The slab track system for transit applications in the U.S and for and for. **Composite/plastic tie life assumed to be comparable to dry climate track wood tie life. This performance has not yet been confirmed by field experience.
Curve (deg) MGT 0 4 Aggregate 10 50 39 25 40 33 50 36 28 Steel Tie Life*** ***Steel tie life assumed to be an average of concrete and dry climate track wood tie. The “Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete” (“Code”) covers the materials, design, and construction of structural concrete used in buildings and where applicable in nonbuilding Structures.
The Code also covers the strength evaluation of existing concrete s: The concrete tie track is stiffer than the wood tie track. The relative difference gets larger as Economics of concrete and wood tie track structures book subgrade becomes stiffer and gets smaller as the subgrade becomes softer than in this example.
Replacing the subballast with a hot mix asphalt concrete layer under the wood ties would increase the track modulus for the wood tie track. When considering wood vs. concrete, it comes down to initial cost, traffic loads, and lifeteme (when is the next time you'll have an opportunity to work on the line).
If the answers are high, heavy, and forever, concrete is the way to go. Everywhere else, wood ties. Wood is an extremely versatile and effective material for use as a railroad track crosstie. However, the key properties of wood will vary with class of wood type.
In order to allow for the potential use of a broad range of wood types, the wood tie properties presented here have been divided into six (6) categories of wood. Wood ties absorb some impact loading, Concrete Ties just pass on the blow to the next medium (the ballast) and then the sub-ballast and then the subgrade.
More ballast needed to cushion and distribute the load. Concrete ties have a much stiffer track modulus than wood. This paper presents a model for evaluating the life-cycle economics of tie types by comparing concrete and timber crossties.
Description Economics of concrete and wood tie track structures FB2
A sensitivity analysis demonstrates how various inputs affect the cost. Concrete maintenance ties: interspersal in existing wood track. Cross ties are a constant focus of track maintenance programs as railroads continually strive for improvement.
Cross ties are not the most expensive track structure component, yet their performance plays a vital role.
Traditionally the wood cross tie. Crawford studied the greenhouse gas emissions of reinforced concrete ties and wooden ties based on one kilometer ( miles) length of track over a year life cycle that includes mining of raw minerals to make concrete versus timber harvesting, tie manufacture, tie installation and use and finally disposal at the end of the ties.
– AREMA recommends a tie reaction of 65 lbs/in2 under wood ties and 85 lbs/in2 under concrete ties, but some railroads use the same for both (e.g. 75 lbs/in2) –Stiffer track Higher loads. • Why these. This chapter reviews the development of the prestressed concrete tie in the USA.
Inthe research staff of the Association of American Railroads (AAR) decided that even though the supply of timber ties was ample for the immediate future, some prestressed concrete ties.
Concrete Crosstie Ballasted Track 1 Concrete Crosstie Fastening Concrete Crossties 4 Crosstie Spacing Crosstie Spacing-Tangent/ Curved Track Special Trackwork Switch Ties Timber Switch Ties Concrete Switch Ties.
Track structures which involve concrete cross ties and will function with a minimum of maintenance are described.
Details include combinations of tie pads and fastenings, ballast requirements, transitions between concrete tie track and wood tie track. The miracle in today’s wood products is that they make more efficient use of the wood fiber resource to make stronger plywood, oriented strand board, I-joists, glued laminated timbers, and laminated veneer.
Noting that more than 60% of the total concrete ties have been installed on the UP within the last 10 years, the calculated average age of the concrete ties in track is low at years. Other Passenger. I believe the process is lay the track and then airbrush the entire track structure concrete color (probably floquil, as it's matte finish) - and then paint the sides of the rail a rust/grime color.
I've used this on woooden ties (Peco Code 55 in N) with excellent results - the entire structure. After water, concrete is the most widely used substance on Earth.
Details Economics of concrete and wood tie track structures PDF
If the cement industry were a country, it would be the third largest carbon dioxide emitter in the world with up to bn tonnes. CXT Concrete Ties can provide an estimated cost savings of 10% to 15% when compared to timber ties using conventional track construction methods.
When mechanized track laying systems are used, the CXT expense can be as much a 20% to 30% lower than wood ties. Life cycle maintenance expenses for concrete ties are also lower than wood tires.
For this project I used Micro Engineering concrete tie track because of the fineness of the details. Listed below is the technique I used to prep.
the rail and ties. _____ Step 1: Apply the base concrete color. Although the gray styrene of the stock flex track.
Structures: Bridges, drainage structures, track hoppers, retaining walls, etc. shall be designed to carry Cooper E live load with diesel impact. Structures shall be designed per American Railway. The – Wood Construction Connectors catalog (C-C) is a comprehensive guide to the company's most recent innovations and product line expansions as well as our existing solutions for wood.
Extending the Life of Wood Crossties Wood Tie Life: Part I - Average Tie Life Wood Tie Life: Part II - Distribution of Failed Ties Strength Properties of Wood Crossties.
Section 13 - Ballast and Subgrade. Ballast, subballast, and subgrade represent a portion of the track structure. Cortesía de Simpson Strong Tie. Wood is a very easy-to-work material, allowing professional and amateur builders to manufacture simple objects and structures without major problems.
Concrete Basicsaims to provide a clear, concise explanation of all aspects of making quality concrete; from the Materials and Properties involved through Planning, Preparation, Finishing and Curing. Concrete. It was explained to me by a BN track inspector that with the old wood ties they had to regauge the track twice a year in that region and some new wood ties lasted only three years due to the high tonnage over those lines.
However, the concrete ties. Design for Shear in Reinforced Concrete Using Strut-and-Tie Models Michael D. Brown Cameron L. Sankovich Oguzhan Bayrak James O. Jirsa John E. Breen Sharon L. Wood CTR Research Report: 0 .Search the world's most comprehensive index of full-text books.
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RAILWAY AGE, MARCH ISSUE: Transferring loads to track ballast and subgrade and helping maintain track geometry and gauge, crossties are the foundation of a railroad. Crossties come in many forms, with wood being the most prevalent.
Concrete ties .
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